Gemstones of the Good Dhamma
compiled and translated by
Ven. S. Dhammika


The discourses of the Buddha and his direct disciples have been collected together into a huge body of literature known as the Sutta Pitaka. Made up of both prose and verse, much of this literature is little known to the average Buddhist because of its great size and also because in both style and content it is highly philosophical. One selection of this literature is, however, very well known. It is the Dhammapada, a collection of four hundred and twenty-three verses on various aspects of the Buddha's teachings. The Dhammapada's convenient size, pithy wisdom and, at times, great beauty has made it by far the most popular book in the Sutta Pitaka.

However, many other verses of equal relevance and appeal are to be found scattered throughout the Sutta Pitaka which remains virtually unknown. I thought it useful, therefore, to collect some of these verses, arrange them according to subject, and present them in such a way that they may enrich the faith and deepen the understanding of those who read them. Most of the verses are the words of the Buddha himself; a lesser number is attributed to his enlightened disciples. But even these reflect the spirit of the Buddha's Dhamma, for it is said: "That which is well spoken is the word of the Buddha." (A. IV, 164).

This small work is dedicated to my good friend, Miss Constance Sandham. May these "Gemstones of the Good Dhamma" illuminate the path so that all beings may attain Nibbana!

About the Author  

Venerable S. Dhammika was born in Australia and developed an interest in Buddhism in his early teens. At the age of twenty-two he went to India and was ordained as a Buddhist monk under the Ven. M. Sangharatana Mahathera. He later moved to Sri Lanka where he taught meditation for several years in the Kandy district. He now lives and teaches in Singapore.

1. Ayacana (Request)  

1. Namo te purisajañña
namo te purisuttama
sadevakasmim lokasmim
natthi te patipuggalo.

Homage to you so nobly bred.
Homage to you amongst men supreme.
Peerless are you in all the world.
May all worship be given to you.

2. Namo te buddha vir'atthu
vippamutto'si sabbadhi
tassa me saranam bhava.

Homage to you, Enlightened Hero,
you who are completely free.
I have fallen into great distress,
be my refuge and my shelter.

3. Passam'aham devamanussaloke
akiñcanam brahmanam iriyamanam
tam tam namassami samantacakkhu
pamunca mam Sakka kathamkathahi.

In the world of gods and men, I see
this brahman true, this simple man.
You I worship, All-seeing One,
so free me Sakka,[1] from my doubts.

4. Anusasa brahme karunayamano
vivekadhammam yam aham vijaññam
yathaham akaso'va avyapajjamano
idh'eva santo asito careyyam.

O Brahma,[2] out of compassion teach me
the lofty Dhamma so I may understand,
and relying on nothing else,
may live unclouded like the sky.

5. Ye ca samkhatadhammase
ye ca sekha puthu idha
tesam me nipako iriyam
puttho pabruhi marisa.

Those who have understood the Dhamma
and those who train themselves in it:
O wise and truly gracious one,
tell me how they live their lives.

2. Dhammavagga (Dhamma)  

6. Kittayissami te dhammam
ditthe dhamme anitiham
yam viditva sato caram
tare loke visattikam.

I will teach you a Dhamma,
not hearsay but to be directly seen.
Whoever discovers it and knows it,
and lives by it with mindfulness,
will transcend craving for the world.

7. Suvijano bhavam hoti
suvijano parabhavo
Dhammakamo bhavam hoti
dhammadessi parabhavo.

Prosperity in life is plain,
decline in life is also plain:
one who loves the Dhamma prospers,
one who hates the Dhamma declines.

8. Yo ca dhammam abhiññaya
dhammam aññaya pandito
rahado va nivato ca
anejo vupasammati.

Thoroughly understanding the Dhamma
and freed from longing through insight,
the wise one rid of all desire
is calm as a pool unstirred by wind.

9. Yesam dhamma asammuttha
paravadesu na niyare
te sambuddha sammadañña
caranti visame samam.

Those to whom the Dhamma is clear
are not led into other doctrines;
perfectly enlightened with perfect knowledge,
they walk evenly over the uneven.

10. Na udakena suci hoti
bahv ettha nhayati jano
yamhi saccañ ca dhammo ca
so suci so ca brahmano.

Not by water is one made pure
though many people may here bathe,[3]
but one in whom there is truth and Dhamma,
he is pure, he is a brahman.

11. Ujuko nama so maggo
abhaya nama sa disa
ratho akujano nama
dhammacakkehi samyuto.

The path is called "straight,"
without fear" is the destination;
the carriage is called "silent"
and its wheels are right effort.

12. Hiri tassa apalambo
saty-assa parivaranam
dhammaham sarathim brumi
sammaditthipure javam.

Conscience is the rails and
mindfulness the upholstery,
Dhamma is the driver and
right view runs ahead of it.

13. Yassa etadisam yanam
itthiya purisassa va
sa ve etena yanena
nibbanassa'eva santike.

And whether it be a woman,
or whether it be a man,
whoever travels by this carriage
shall draw close to Nibbana.

14. Ye keci osadha loke
vijjanti vividha bahu
dhammosadhasamam na'tthi
etam pivatha bhikkhavo.

Of all the medicines in the world,
manifold and various,
there is none like the medicine of Dhamma:
therefore, O monks, drink of this.

15. Dhammosadham pivitvana
ajaramarana siyum
bhavayitva ca passitva
nibbuta upadhikkhaye.

Having drunk this Dhamma medicine,
you will be ageless and beyond death;
having developed and seen the truth,
you will be quenched, free from craving.

3. Kilesavagga (The Defilements)  

16. Kamayogena samyutta
bhavayogena cubhayam
ditthiyogena samyutta
avijjaya purakkhata
satta gacchanti samsaram

Bound by desire, tied to becoming,
fettered tightly by false opinions,
yoked to ignorance, whirled around:
thus beings wander through samsara,
dying only to be born again.

17. Na hiraññasuvannena
parikkhiyanti asava
amitta vadhaka kama
sapatta sallabandhana.

Neither gold nor minted coins
can make the defilements disappear.
Sense desires are enemies and killers,
hostile darts, rigid bonds.

18. Ummadana ullapana
kama cittapamathino
sattanam samkilesaya
khippam marena odditam.

Desire is agitating and deceiving,
a source of mental pain,
a net cast out by Mara[4]
to entangle and defile beings.

19. Pabbatassa suvannassa
jatarupassa kevalo
dvitta va nalam ekassa
iti vidva samañ care.

Were there a mountain all made of gold,
doubled that would not be enough
to satisfy a single man:
know this and live accordingly.

20. Kodhano dubbanno hoti
atho dukkham pi seti so
atho attham gahetvana
anattham adhipajjati
tato kayena vacaya
vadham katvana kodhano.

How ugly is the angry man!
His sleep is without comfort;
despite his wealth he is always poor.
Filled with anger as he is, he wounds
by acts of body and speech.

21. Hanta labhati hataram
jetaram labhati jayam
akkosako ca akkosam
rosetarañ ca rosako
atha kamma vivattena
so vilutto vilumpati.

One who kills gets a killer,
one who conquers gets a conquerer,
one who reviles gets reviled.
Thus as a result of his own actions
the spoiler will in turn be spoiled.

22. Natth'añño ekadhammo pi
yeneva nivuta paja
samsaranti ahorattam
yatha mohena avuta.

There is no other single thing
by which the human race is hindered,
by which it wanders day and night,
so much as by this: delusion.

23. Imesu kira sajjanti
eke samanabrahmana
viggayha nam vivadanti
jana ekangadassino.

How they cling and how they wrangle,
yet claim to be recluses and brahmans.
Quarreling and clinging to their opinions,
they see only one side of things.

24. Ye ca rattim diva yutta
te nibbapenti ragaggim
niccam asubhasaññino.

Those who apply themselves, day and night
to the teachings of the Buddha
will quench the burning fire of lust
by the perception of the impure.

25. Dosaggim pana mettaya
nibbapenti naruttama
mohaggim pana paññaya
yayam nibbedhagamini.

By love they will quench the fire of hate,
by wisdom the fire of delusion.
Those supreme men extinguish delusion
with wisdom that breaks through to truth.

4. Danavagga (Giving)  

26. Na samane na brahmane
na kapaniddhike na vanibbake
labbhana samvibhajeti
annam panañca bhojanam
tam ve avutthikasamo'ti
ahu nam purisadhamam.

Not with recluses or brahmans,
neither with the poor and needy
does the base man share his food
or give any drink or sustenance.
People say that selfish man
is like a drought, a rainless sky.

27. Ekaccanam na dadati
Ekaccanam pavecchati
tam ve padesavassiti
ahu medhavino jana.

One who shares his wealth with some,
but does not gladly give to others,
is only like a local shower:
in such a way the wise describe him.

28. Subhikkhavaco puriso
amodamano pakireti
detha detha ti bhasati.

But one who rains down bountiful gifts,
gladly giving here and there
out of compassion for all beings,
and who always says "Give, give" —

29. Yathapi megho thanayitva
gajjayitva pavassati
thalam ninnañca pureti
abhisandanto varina
evam eva idh'ekacco
puggalo hoti tadiso.

This type of person is like
a giant cloud filled with rain,
thundering and pouring down
refreshing water everywhere,
drenching the highlands and lowlands too,
generous without distinctions.

30. Dhammena samharitvana
utthanadhigatam dhanam
tappeti annapanena
samma satte vanibakke.

With his wealth collected justly,
won through his own efforts,
he shares both food and drink
with beings who are in need.

31. Yathapi kumbho sampunno
yassa kassaci adhokato
vamate udakam nissesam
na tattha parirakkhati.

Just as a pot filled with water
if overturned by anyone,
pours out all its water
and does not hold any back.

32. Tath'eva yacke disva
dadahi danam nissesam
kumbho viya adhokato.

Even so, when you see those in need,
whether low, middle or high,
then give like the overturned pot,
holding nothing back.

33. Danañ ca peyyavajjañ ca
atthacariya ca ya idha
samanattata dhammesu
tattha tattha yatharaham
ete kho sangaha loke
rathass'ani va yayato.

Generosity, kind words,
doing a good turn for others,
and treating all people alike:
these bonds of sympathy are to the world
what the lynch-pin is to the chariot wheel.

34. Annado balado hoti
vatthado hoti vannado
yanado sukhado hoti
dipado hoti cakkhudo.

Giving food one gives strength,
giving clothes one gives beauty,
giving lamps one gives sight,
giving transport one gives delight.

35. So ca sabbadado hoti
yo dadati upassayam
amatam dado ca so hoti
yo dhammam anusasati.

Giving shelter one gives all;
but one who instructs in the Dhamma,
the excellent teaching of the Buddha,
such a person gives ambrosia.

5. Silavagga (Virtue)  

36. Silam ev'idha sikkhetha
asmim loke susikkhitam
silam hi sabbasampattim
upanameti sevitam.

Here in the world one should train
carefully to purify virtue;
for virtue when well cultivated
brings all success to hand.

37. Yo panam natipateti
musavadam na bhasati
loke adinnam nadiyati
paradaram na gacchati.

Not harming living beings,
not speaking lies, taking nothing
in all the world unasked, nor
going to the wives of other men.

38. Suramerayapanam ca
yo naro nanuyunjati
pahaya pañca verani
silava iti vuccati.

And never drinking intoxicants:
One who gives up these five harmful acts
and does not engage in them
is truly called a virtuous man.

39. Adi silam patittha ca
kalyananañ ca matukam
pamukham sabbadhammanam
tasma silam visodhaye.

Virtue is the foundation,
the forerunner and origin
of all that is good and beautiful;
therefore one should purify virtue.

40. Silam balam appatimam
silam avudham uttamam
silam abharanam settham
silam kavacam abbhutam.

Virtue is a mighty power,
Virtue is a mighty weapon,
Virtue is the supreme adornment,
Virtue is a wonderful armour.

41. Na jacca vasalo hoti
na jacca hoti brahmano
kammana vasalo hoti
kammana hoti brahmano.

One is not low because of birth
nor does birth make one holy.
Deeds alone make one low,
deeds alone make one holy.

42. Ananganassa posassa
niccam sucigavesino
valaggamattam papassa
abbhamattam va khayati.

To one who is without evil,
always striving for purity,
a wrong the size of a hair tip
seems as big as a rain cloud.

43. Puññam eva so sikkheyya
ayataggam sukhundrayam
danañca samacariyañca
mettacittañca bhavaye.

Train yourself in doing good
that lasts and brings happiness.
Cultivate generosity, the life of peace,
and a mind of boundless love.

44. Silam ajarasa sadhu
saddha sadhu adhitthita
pañña naranam ratanam
puññam corehyahariyam.

The good luck of virtue never fades,
faith also brings great good.
Wisdom is man's most precious gem,
merit no thief can ever steal.

45. Sabbada silasampanno
paññva susamahito
ajjhattacinti satima
ogham tarati duttaram.

In every virtue all-accomplished,
with wisdom full and mind composed,
looking within and ever mindful -
thus one crosses the raging flood.

6. Vacavagga (Speech)  

46. Purisassa hi jatassa
kuthari jayate mukhe
yaya chindati attanam
balo dubbhasitam bhanam.

Every fool who is born
has an axe within his mouth
with which he cuts himself
when he uses wrong speech.

47. Tam eva vacam bhaseyya
yay'attanam na tapaye
pare ca na vihimseyya
sa ve vaca subhasita.

One should utter only words
which do no harm to oneself
and cause no harm for others:
that is truly beautiful speech.

48. Piyavacam eva bhaseyya
ya vaca patinandita
yam anadaya papani
paresam bhasate piyam.

Speak kind words, words
rejoiced at and welcomed,
words that bear ill-will to none;
always speak kindly to others.

49. Tass'eva tena papiyo
yo kuddham patikujjhati
kuddham appatikujjhanto
sangamam jeti dujjayam.

The worse of the two is he
who, when abused, retaliates.
One who does not retaliate
wins a battle hard to win.

50. Jayam ve maññati balo
vacaya pharusam bhanam
jayañc'ev'assa tam hoti
ya titikkha vijanato.

The fool thinks he has won a battle
when he bullies with harsh speech,
but knowing how to be forbearing
alone makes one victorious.

51. Yam samano bahu bhasati
upetam atthasamhi tam
janam so dhammam deseti
janam so bahu bhasati.

When the recluse speaks much
it is only to speak about the goal.
Knowingly he teaches the Dhamma,
knowingly he speaks much.

52. Yo ve na byadhati patva
parisam uggahavadinam
na ca hapeti vacanam
na ca chadeti sasanam.

If one addresses those who wish
to learn, without wavering, imparting
understanding, opening up and not
obscuring the teaching.

53. Asanditthañ ca bhanati
pucchito na ca kuppati
sa ve tadisako bhikkhu
duteyyam gantum arahati.

Speaking without hesitation nor
getting angry when asked a question,
a monk like this is worthy
to proclaim the teachings.

54. Nabhasamanam jananti
missam balehi panditam
bhasamanañ ca jananti
desentam amatam padam
bhasaye jotaye dhammam
pagganhe isinam dhajam.

If he does not speak up, others know
him not; he is just a wise man mixed
up with fools. But if he speaks about
and teaches the Deathless, others will
know him. So let him light up the Dhamma,
let him lift the sage's banner high.

55. Yam buddho bhasati vacam
khemam nibbanapattiya
dukkhass 'antakiriyaya
sa ve vacanam uttama.

The Buddha speaks words that lead
to the winning of security, the ending
of sorrow and the attaining of Nibbana.
Truly, this is the speech supreme.

7. Bhogavagga (Wealth)  

56. Jivatevapi sappañño
api vittaparikkhaya
paññaya ca alabhena
vittavapi na jivati.

The wise man continues to live
even if he should lose his wealth.
But the rich man without wisdom
is not alive even now.

57. Appakena pi medhavi
pabhatena vicakkhano
samutthapeti attanam
anum aggiva santhamam.

Starting off with little wealth,
the wise man skillfully increases it,
just as a sudden draft of wind
can make a spark of fire grow.

58. Susamvihitakammantam
kalutthayam atanditam
sabbe bhogabhivaddhanti
gavo sausabha-m-iva.

If he plans his project well,
rises early and works untiringly,
all his wealth will increase
like cows penned in with a bull.

59. Pandito silasampanno
jalam aggiva bhasati
bhoge samharamanassa
bhamarass'eva iriyato.

One who is virtuous and wise
shines forth like a blazing fire;
like a bee collecting nectar
he acquires wealth by harming none.

60. Catudha vibhaje bhoge
sa ve mittani ganthati
ekena bhoge bhunjeyya
dvihi kammam payojaye
catutthañ ca nidhapeyya
apadasu bhavissati.

He divides his wealth in four
and thus he wins friendship.
One portion he uses for his needs,
two portions for his business,
the fourth portion he saves
for times of emergency.

61. Susamvihitakammanta
bhattu manapam carati
sambhatam anurakkhati.

Deft and capable at her work,
in harmony with other people,
a wife is pleasing to her husband
and carefully looks after his wealth.

62. Saddhasilena sampanna
vadaññu vitamacchara
niccam maggam visodheti
sotthanam samparayikam.

Endowed with faith and virtue,
speaking gently, free from selfishness:
such a woman purifies the pathway
leading to a future happiness.

63. Saddhadhanam siladhanam
hiri ottappiyam dhanam
sutadhanañ ca cago ca
pañña ve sattamam dhanam.

The wealth of faith and virtue's wealth,
the wealth of conscience and fear of blame,
the wealth of learning and giving too,
and as the seventh, wisdom's wealth.

64. Yassa ete dhana atthi
itthiya purisassa va
adaliddo'ti tam ahu
amogham tassa jivitam.

Those who have these treasures true,
be they women or be they men,
are not poor or destitute,
nor have their lives been lived in vain.

65. Patirupakari dhurava
utthata vindate dhanam
saccena kittim pappoti
dadam mittani ganthati.

Whoever acts, strives and toils
shall acquire wealth;
by truthfulness one gains good repute,
and by giving one binds friends.

8. Mittatavagga (Friendship)  

66. Asant'assa piya honti
sante na kurute piyam
asantam dhammam roceti
tam parabhavato mukham.

To be in communion with the bad,
and choose the ways of the bad,
to have no friends among the good,
this is a source of suffering.

67. Sabbhir eva samasetha
sabbhi kubbetha santhavam
satam saddhammam aññaya
pañña labbhati nannato.

Consort only with the good,
come together with the good.
To learn the teaching of the good
gives wisdom like nothing else can.

68. Putimaccham kusaggena
yo naro upanayhati
kusa pi puti vayanti
evam balupasevana.

If one strings a piece of putrid fish
on a blade of kusa grass,
the grass will soon smell putrid too:
the same with one who follows a fool.

69. Tagarañca palasena
yo naro upanayhati
patta pi surabhi vayanti
evam dhirupasevana.

If one wraps frankincense,
in any ordinary kind of leaf,
the leaf will soon smell sweet too:
the same with one who follows the wise.

70. Tasma palasaputass'eva
natva sampatam attano
asante nupaseveyya
sante seveyya pandito.

Remembering the example of the leaf,
and understanding the results,
one should seek companionship
with the wise, never with the bad.

71. Sattho pathavato mittam
mata mittam sake ghare
sahayo atthajatassa
hoti mittam punappunam
sayam katani puññani
tam mittam samparayikam.

A companion is a traveler's friend,
a mother is a friend at home,
one who helps in time of need
is a good and steady friend.
And the good deeds done by oneself
are one's true friends in time to come.

72. Upakaro ca yo mitto
yo ca mitto sukhe dukkhe
atth'akkhayi ca yo mitto
yo ca mittanukampako.

A friend who always lends a hand,
a friend in both sorrow and joy,
a friend who offers good counsel,
a friend who sympathises too.

73. Ete pi mitte cattaro
iti viññaya pandito
sakkaccam payirupaseyya
mata puttam va orasam.

These are the four kinds of true friends:
one who is wise, having understood,
will always cherish and serve such friends
just as a mother tends her only child.

74. Kalyanamitto yo bhikkhu
sappatisso sagaravo
karam mittanam vacanam
sampajano patissato
papune anupubbena

The monk who has a lovely friend,
who pays respect and deference to him,
and acts as his friend advises,
with mindfulness and comprehension clear,
will in time be freed from bonds;
all his fetters will be destroyed.

75. Abbhatitasahayassa
n'atthi etadisam mittam
yatha kayagata sati.

For one whose friend has passed away,
for one whose teacher no more lives,
there is no other friend in this world
like mindfulness of the body.

9. Sutavagga (Learning)  

76. Sussusa sutavaddhani
sutam paññaya vaddhanam
paññaya attham janati
nato attho sukhavaho.

Desire to learn increases learning;
learning makes wisdom increase.
By wisdom is the goal known;
knowing the goal brings happiness.

77. Bahussutam upaseyya
sutañ ca na vinasaye
tam mulam brahmacariyassa
tasma dhammadharo siya.

One should follow the learned man,
and should not neglect learning,
for that is the foundation of the holy life.
Therefore be well versed in Dhamma.

78. Bahussutam dhammadharam
sappaññam buddhasavakam
nekkham jambonadass'eva
ko tam ninditum arahati
devapi nam pasamsanti
brahmunapi pasamsito.

Learned, knowing the Dhamma,
truly wise, the Buddha's disciple
is like the finest gold of Jambu.
Who can find any blame in him?
Even the gods sing his praise;
Brahma himself sings his praise.[5]

79. Appassuto pi ce hoti
silesu susamahito
silato nam pasamsanti
nassa sampajjate sutam.

If one who has little learning
is strong in virtue, others
will praise his virtue only,
because his learning is incomplete.

80. Bahusuto pi ce hoti
silesu samahito
silato nam garahanti
tassa sampajjate sutam.

If one who has much learning
is weak in virtue, others
will blame him for his conduct
though his learning is complete.

81. Bahussuto pe ce hoti
silesu susamahito
ubhayena nam pasamsanti
silato ca sutena ca.

But if one has much learning
and is also strong in virtue,
he will be praised for both
his virtue and his learning.

82. Bahussuto appasutam
yo sutenatimaññati
andho padipadharo'va
tath'eva patibhati mam.

A learned man who, because of his learning,
despises one with little learning,
seems to me like a stone-blind man
walking around with a lamp in hand.

83. Tasma hi attahamena
mahantam abhikankhata
saddhammo garukatabbo
saram buddhana sasanam.

One who loves his own true welfare,
who is concerned with his own good,
should pay homage to the Dhamma
and always remember the Buddha's words.

84. Samma manam panidhaya
samma vacam abhasiya
samma kammani katvana
kayena idha puggalo.

Having a rightly directed mind,
speaking rightly spoken speech,
doing here with the body
only deeds that are right and good.

85. Bahussuto puññakaro
apasmim idha jivite
kayassa bheda sappañño
saggam so upapajjati.

Learned, doing much that is worthy
even in a life that is short —
a wise person such as this
will be reborn in a happy place.

10. Savakavagga (The Disciple)  

86. Matari pitari capi
yo samma patipajjati
tatagate va sambuddhe
athava tassa savake
bahun ca so pasavati
puññam etadiso naro.

If one behaves rightly
toward his mother and his father,
towards the Buddha well-attained,
and the disciples of the Buddha,
such a person generates
an abundant store of good.

87. Bhikkhu ca silasampanno
bhikkuni ca bahussuta
upasako ca yo saddho
ya ca saddha upasika
ete kho sangham sobhenti
ete hi sanghasobhana.

The monk well-possessed of virtue,
the nun who is widely learned,
male and female lay disciples
who are fully endowed with faith —
it is they who illuminate the Sangha,
"lights of the Sangha" they are called.

88. Yassa sabrahmacarisu
garavo n'upalabbhati
araka hoti saddhamma
nabham puthaviya yatha.

One who has no respect for those
who live the holy life with him,
is as far from this good Dhamma
as the sky is from the earth.

89. Yassa sabrahmacarisu
garavo upalabbhati
so viruhati saddhamme
khette bijam'va bhaddakam.

One who has respect for those
who live the holy life with him,
comes to growth in this good Dhamma
like a healthy seed in the field.

90. Itthibhavo kim kayira
cittamhi susamahite
nanamhi vattamanamhi
sammadhammam vipassato.

A woman's nature is unimportant
when the mind is still and firm,
when knowledge grows day by day,
and she has insight into Dhamma.

91. Yassa nuna siya evam
itthaham puriso'ti va
kiñci va pana asmiti
tam maro vattum arahati.

One who thinks such thoughts
as "I am a woman" or "I am a man"
or any other thought "I am — "
Mara is able to address that one.

92. Dummedhehi pasamsa ca
viññuhi garaha ca ya
garaha'va seyyo viññuhi
yan ce balappasamsana.

The fools offer praise and the wise
offer blame. Truly the blame
of the wise is much better
than the praise of the fool.

93. Sagara anagara ca
ubho aññoññanissita
aradhayanti saddhammam
yogakkhemam anuttaram.

Home dwellers and the homeless both,
by depending upon each other
come to realize the good Dhamma,
the utter freedom from bondage.

94. Anubandho pi ce assa
mahiccho va vighatava
ejanugo anejassa
nibbutassa anibbuto
giddho so vitagedhassa
passa yavañca araka.

Though physically close behind,
if one is acquisitive and restless,
how far is that turbulent one
from one freed from turbulence,
that burning one from one cooled,
that hankering one from the greedless!

95. Sukha sanghassa samaggi
samagganan c'anuggaho
samaggarato dhammattho
yogakkhema na dhamsati.

A happy thing is concord in the Sangha!
One who assists in making harmony,
loving concord and righteousness,
does not fall away from freedom.

11. Cittavagga (Mind)  

96. Cittena niyati loko
cittena parikissati
cittassa ekadhammassa
sabb'eva vasam anvagu.

The world is led around by mind,
by mind the world is plagued.
Mind is itself the single thing
which brings all else beneath its sway.

97. Manopubbangama dhamma
manosettha manomaya
Manasa ce pasannena
bhasati va karoti va
tato nam sukhamanveti
chaya va anapayini.

Mind precedes all things;
mind is their chief, mind is their maker.
If one speaks or does a deed
with a mind that is pure within,
happiness then follows along
like a never departing shadow.

98. Sududdasam sunipunam
cittam rakkhetha medhavi
cittam guttam sukhavaham.

Difficult to detect and very subtle,
the mind seizes whatever it wants;
so let a wise man guard his mind,
for a guarded mind brings happiness.

99. Dunniggahassa lahuno
cittassa damatho sadhu
cittam dantam sukhavaham.

Wonderful it is to train the mind
so swiftly moving, seizing whatever it wants.
Good is it to have a well-trained mind,
for a well-trained mind brings happiness.

100. Phandanam capalam cittam
durakkham dunnivarayam
ujum karoti medhavi
usukaro'va tejanam.

As a fletcher straightens an arrow,
even so one who is wise
will straighten out the fickle mind,
so unsteady and hard to control.

101. Na tam mata pita kayira
aññe vapi ca nataka
sammapanihitam cittam
seyyaso nam tato kare

No mother nor father nor
any other kin can do
greater good for oneself
than a mind directed well.

102. Anabhijjhalu vihareyya
avyapannena cetasa
sato ekaggacittassa
ajjhattam susamahito.

Love without covetous greed,
fill your mind with benevolence.
Be mindful and one-pointed,
inwardly stable and concentrated.

103. Pañca kamaguna loke
manochattha pavedita
ettha chandam virejetva
evam dukkha pamuccati.

There are five strands of sensual pleasure
with the mind as the sixth;
by overcoming desire for these
one will be freed from suffering.

104. Mama selupamam cittam
thitam nanupakampati
virattam rajaniyesu
kuppaniye na kuppati
mam'evam bhavitam cittam
kuto mam dukkham essati.

My mind is firm like a rock,
unattached to sensual things,
no shaking in the midst
of a world where all is shaking.
My mind has thus been well-developed,
so how can suffering come to me?

105. Yo caram va yo tittham va
nisinno udava sayam
vitakkam samayitvana
vitakkopasame rato
bhabbo so tadiso bhikkhu
phutthum sambodhim uttamam.

Whether he walks or stands
or sits or lies, a monk
should take delight in
controlling all thoughts.
Such a monk is qualified
to reach supreme enlightenment.

12. Sikkhavagga (The Training)  

106. Atisitam atiunham
atisayam idam ahu
iti vissatthakammante
attha accenti manave.

"It's too cold, it's too hot,
it's too late," with such excuses
one who gives up the practice
lets his opportunities slip.

107. Yo ca sitañ ca unhañ ca
tina bhiyyo na maññati
karam purisakiccani
so sukha na vihayati.

But one who looks on cold and heat
as no more obstructive than straw
and continues with the practice
does not fall short of happiness.

108. Alinacitto ca siya
na capi bahu cintaye
niramagandho asito

So rid the mind of sloth and dullness,
give up thinking of many things.
Be healthy and unattached to pleasure,
be devoted to the holy life.

109. Unudaro mitaharo
appich'assa alolupo
sa ve icchaya nicchato
aniccho hoti nibbuto.

Lean in body, frugal in food,
content with little and undisturbed,
vain wishes gone and craving stilled,
thus the wantless attain Nibbana.

110. Sa jhanapasuto dhiro
vanante ramito siya
jhayetha rukkhamulasmim
attanam abhitosayam.

One who is stable in meditation
will delight at the woodland's edge,
meditating at the foot of a tree
until joy and contentment are won.

111. Kamacchando ca vyapado
thinamiddhañ ca bhikkhuno
uddhaccam vicikiccha ca
sabbaso va na vijjati.

Sense desire, ill will,
sloth, laziness, agitation,
and doubt are not found
in a true and worthy monk.

112. Na sabbato mano nivaraye
na mano sayatattam agatam
yato yato ca papakam
tato tato mano nivaraye.

Do not hold back the mind from all,
for it is not yet put to sleep.
But whenever evil things arise,
then should the mind be held in check.

113. Viriyasataccasampanno
yuttayogo sada siya
na ca appatva dukkhantam
vissasam eyya pandito.

Possessed of energy and perserverance,
be always earnest in applying yourself.
The wise one should not be confident
until the end of suffering is reached.

114. Samadhiratanamalassa
kuvitakka na jayare
na ca vikkipate cittam
etam tumhe pilandhatha.

With the jewelled necklace of concentration,
wrong thoughts cannot arise
nor can the mind be distracted.
So let this be your adornment.

115. Anapanasati yassa
paripunna subhavita
anupubbam paricita
yatha buddhena desita
so'mam lokam pabhaseti
abbha muto va candima.

One who has gradually practiced,
developed and brought to perfection
mindfulness of the in-and-out breath
as taught by the Enlightened One,
illuminates the entire world
like the moon when freed from clouds.

13. Vayamavagga (Effort)  

116. Pamado rajo pamada
pamadanupatito rajo
appamadena vijjaya
abbulhe sallam attano.

Indolence is dust;
dust comes in the wake of indolence.
With knowledge and vigilance
draw out the arrow from yourself.

117. Niddasili sabhasili
anutthata ca yo naro
alaso kodhapannano
tam parabhavato mukham.

When one loves company and sleep,
when one is lax and slack,
when one is often given to anger —
this is a source of suffering.

118. Samvaro ca pahanam ca
bhavana anurakkhana
ete padhana cattaro

The effort to restrain, to abandon,
to develop and to maintain:
these are the four exertions
taught by the Kinsman of the Sun.

119. Utthahatha nisidatha
no attho supitena vo?
aturanam hi ka nidda
sallaviddhana ruppatam?

Arise! Sit up! Of what use
are your dreams? How can you
continue to sleep when you are sick,
pierced with the arrow of grief?

120. Amogham divasam kayira
appena bahukena va
yam yam vijahate rattim
tadunan tassa jivitam.

Make your day productive
whether by little or by much.
Every day and night that passes,
your life is that much less.

121. Yo dandhakale dandheti
taraniye ca taraye
yoniso samvidhanena
sukham pappoti pandito.

The wise one who hurries when
hurrying is needed and who slows down
when slowness is needed, is happy
because his priorities are right.

122. Araddhaviriye pahitatte
niccam dalhaparakkame
samagge savake passa
esa budhana vandana.

See the disciples in perfect harmony,
resolute and making effort,
always firm in their progress —
this is the best worship of the Buddha.

123. Niddam tandim vijambhikam
aratim bhattasammadam
viriyena nam panametva
ariyamaggo visujjhati.

Sloth, torpor and drowsiness,
boredom and heaviness after meals —
by expelling these with energy
the noble path is purified.

124. Saddhaya tarati ogham
appamadena annavam
viriyena dukkham acceti
paññaya parisujjhati.

The flood is crossed by faith,
by vigilance the sea is crossed,
pain is overcome with vigor
by wisdom one is purified.

125. Ujumaggamhi akkhate
gacchatha ma nivattatha
attana coday'attanam
nibbanam abhiharaye.

The straight path has been clearly shown:
walk forward and don't turn back.
Urge yourself onwards by yourself;
in that way attain Nibbana.

14. Sativagga (Mindfulness)  

126. Sambadhe vapi vindanti
dhammam nibbanapattiya
ye satim saccalatthamsu
samma te susamahita.

Even when obstacles crowd in,
the path to Nibbana can be won
by those who establish mindfulness
and bring to perfection equipoise.

127. Sace dhavati te cittam
kamesu ca bhavesu ca
khippam nigganha satiya
kitthadam viya duppasum.

If your mind runs wild among
sensual pleasures and things that arise,
quickly restrain it with mindfulness
as one pulls the cow from the corn.

128. Ubhinnam attham carati
attano ca parassa ca
param sankupitam natva
yo sato upasammati.

Knowing that the other person is angry,
one who remains mindful and calm
acts for his own best interest
and for the other's interest, too.

129. Ubhinnam tikicchantanam
attano ca parassa ca
jana maññanti balo'ti
ye dhammassa akovida.

He is a healer of both
himself and the other person;
only those think him a fool
who do not understand the Dhamma.

130. Yatam care yatam titthe
yatam acche yatam saye
yatam samminjaye bhikkhu
yathamenam pasaraye.

Whether he walks, stands, sits
or lies, stretches out his limbs
or draws them in again, let a
monk do so with composure.

131. Uddham tiriyam apacinam
yavata jagato gati
samavekkhita va dhammanam
khandhanam udayabbayam.

Above, across or back again,
wherever he goes in the world
let him carefully scrutinise
the rise and fall of compounded things.

132. Evam viharim atapim
santavuttim anuddhatam
sikkhamanam sada satam
satatam pahitatto'ti
ahu bhikkhum tathavidham.

Living thus ardently,
at peace within, not restless
or mentally agitated,
training himself, always mindful:
people call such a monk
"one constantly resolute."

133. Na so rajjati dhammesu
dhammam natva patissato
virattacitto vedeti tan
ca n'ajjhosaya titthati.

Not excited by mental phenomena,
one knows them through mindfulness;
thus with a mind well detached
one understands and does not cling.

134. Satipatthanakusala
vipassaka dhammadhara
dhammanagare vasantite.

Those skilled in the foundations of mindfulness,
delighting in the enlightenment factors,
with knowledge of Dhamma and keen insight,
live in the city of Dhamma.

135. Sammappadhanasampanno
parinibbaty anasavo.

Possessed of persevering energy,
practicing the foundations of mindfulness,
bedecked with the blossoms of freedom,
you will be cooled and undefiled.

15. Attaparavagga (Oneself and Others)  

136. Sabbe tasanti dandassa
sabbesam jivitam piyam
attanam upamam katva
na haneyya na ghataye.

All tremble at punishment.
Life is dear to all.
Put yourself in the place of others;
kill none nor have another killed.

137. Attana'va katam papam
attana sankilissati
attana akatam papam
attana'va visujjhati
suddhi asuddhi paccattam
nañño aññam visodhaye.

By doing evil, one defiles oneself;
by avoiding evil, one purifies oneself.
Purity and impurity depend on oneself:
no one can purify another.

138. Attadattham paratthena
bahuna 'pi na hapaye
attadattham abhiññaya
sadatthapasuto siya.

Let no one neglect his own welfare
for the welfare of others however much.
Clearly understanding one's own welfare
strive always for one's own true good.

139. Attanameva pathamam
patirupe nivesaye
ath'aññam anusaseyya
na kilisseyya pandito.

One should first establish onself
in what is proper and only then
try to instruct others. Doing this,
the wise one will not be criticized.

140. Attana ce tatha kayira
yath'aññam anusasati
sudanto vata dammetha
atta hi kira duddamo.

If only you would do what you teach others
then being yourself controlled
you could control others well.
Truly self-control is difficult.

141. Yo c'attanam samukkamse
parañ ca-m-avajanati
nihino sena manena
tam jañña vasalo'iti.

One who exalts himself
and disparages others
because of smugness and conceit;
know him as an outcaste man.

142. Na paresam vilomani
na paresam katakatam
attano va avekkheyya
katani akatani ca.

Look not to the faults of others,
nor to their omissions and commissions.
But rather look to your own acts,
to what you have done and left undone.

143. Paravajjanupassissa
niccam ujjhanasaññino
asava tassa vaddhanti
ara so asavakkhaya.

When one looks down at others' faults
and is always full of envy,
one's defilements continually grow;
far is one from their destruction.

144. Sudassam vajjam aññesam
attano pana duddasam
paresam hi so vajjani
opunati yathabhusam
attano pana chadeti
kalim'va kitava satho.

Easily seen are the faults of others,
one's own are difficult to see.
By winnowing the chaff of others' faults,
one's own are obscured, like a crafty
fowler hidden behind the branches.

145. Attana coday' attanam
patimase attam attana
so attagutto satima
sukham bhikkhu vihahisi.

You yourself must watch yourself,
you yourself must examine yourself,
and so self-guarded and mindful,
O monk, you will live in happiness.

16. Mettavagga I (Love I)  

146. Anatthajanano doso
doso cittappakopano
bhayam antarato jatam
tam jano navabujjhati.

Hate brings great misfortune,
hate churns up and harms the mind;
this fearful danger deep within
most people do not understand.

147. Duttho attham na janati.
duttho dhammam na passati
andham tamam tada hoti
yam doso sahate naram.

Thus spoilt one cannot know the good,
cannot see things as they are.
Only blindness and gloom prevail
when one is overwhelmed by hate.

148. Yo na hanti na ghateti
na jinati na japaye
mettam so sabbabhutesu
veram tassa na kenaci.

He who does not strike nor makes
others strike, who robs not nor makes
others rob, sharing love with all that live,
finds enmity with none.

149. Satimato sada bhaddam
satima sukham edhati
satimato su ve seyyo
vera na parimuccati.

For the mindful one there is always good;
for the mindful one happiness increases;
for the mindful one things go better
yet he is not freed from enemies.

150. Yassa sabbam ahorattam
ahimsaya rato mano
mettam so sabbabhutesu
veram tassa na kenaci.

But he who both day and night
takes delight in harmlessness
sharing love with all that live,
finds enmity with none.

151. Yo ve mettena cittena
uddham adho ca tiriyañ ca
appamanena sabbaso.

When one with a mind of love
feels compassion for all the world —
above, below and across,
unlimited everywhere.

152. Appamanam hitam cittam
paripunnam subhavitam
yam pamanakatam kammam
na tam tatravasissati.

Filled with infinite kindness,
complete and well-developed —
any limited actions one may have done
do not remain lingering in one's mind.

153. Mettacitta karunika
hotha silesu samvuta
araddhaviriya pahitatta
niccam dalhaparakkama.

Develop a mind full of love;
be compassionate and restrained in virtue;
arouse your energy, be resolute,
always firm in making progress.

154. Yathapi ekaputtasmim
piyasmim kusali siya
evam sabbesu panesu
sabbattha kusalo siya.

Just as a loving mother would guard
her only dearly beloved child,
so towards creatures everywhere
one should always wish for their good.

155. Cittam ca susamahitam
vippasannam anavilam
akhilam sabbabhutesu
so maggo brahmapattiya.

A mind composed, well-concentrated,
purified and undefiled,
full of kindness towards all beings —
this is the way that leads to Brahma.

17. Mettavagga II (Love II)  

156. Yathapi udakam nama
kalyane papake jane
samam pharati sitena
pavaheti rajomalam.

Just as water cools
both good and bad
and washes away all
impurity and dust.

157. Tath'eva tvam pi ahitahite
samam mettaya bhavaya
mettaparamitam gantva
sambodhim papunissasi.

In the same way you should develop thoughts
of love to friend and foe alike,
and having reached perfection in love,
you will attain enlightenment.

158. "Yatha aham tatha ete
yatha ete tatha aham"
attanam upamam katva
na haneyya na ghataye.

"As I am, so are others;
as others are, so am I."
Having thus identified self and others,
harm no one nor have them harmed.

159. Apadakehi me mettam
mettam dipadakehi me
catuppadehi me mettam
mettam bahuppadehi me.

I have love for the footless,
for the bipeds too I have love;
I have love for those with four feet,
for the many-footed I have love.

160. Ma mam apadako himsi
ma mam himsi dipadako
ma mam catuppado himsi
ma mam himsi bahuppado.

May the footless harm me not,
may the bipeds harm me not,
may those with four feet harm me not,
may those with many feet harm me not.

161. Sabbe satta sabbe pana
sabbe bhuta ca kevala
sabbe bhadrani passantu
ma kañci papamagama.

May all creatures, all living things,
all beings one and all,
experience good fortune only.
May they not fall into harm.

162. Sabbamitto sabbasakho
mettam cittañ ca bhavemi
abyapajjharato sada.

I am a friend and helper to all,
I am sympathetic to all living beings.
I develop a mind full of love
and always delight in harmlessness.

163. Asamhiram asamkuppam
cittam amodayam'aham
brahmaviharam bhavemi

I gladden my mind, fill it with joy,
make it immovable and unshakable.
I develop the divine states of mind
not cultivated by evil men.

164. Tasma sakam paresam pi
katabba mettabhavana
mettacittena pharitabbam
etam buddhana sasanam.

Therefore the meditation on love
should be done for oneself and others.
All should be suffused with love:
this is the teaching of the Buddha.

165. Yo ca mettam bhavayati
appamanam patissato
tanu samyojana honti
passato upadhikkhayam.

Whoever makes love grow
boundless, and sets his mind
for seeing the end of birth:
his fetters are worn thin.

18. Sukhavagga (Happiness)  

166. Yo pubbe karaniyani
paccha so katum icchati
sukha so dhamsate thana
paccha ca m-anutappati.

One who later wishes to do
the things he should have done before
falls away from happiness
and long afterwards repents.

167. Kodham chetva sukham seti
kodham chetva na socati
kodhassa visamulassa
madhuraggassa brahmana
vadham ariya pasamsanti
tam hi chetva na socati.

Slay anger and you will be happy,
slay anger and you will not sorrow.
For the slaying of anger in all its forms
with its poisoned root and sweet sting —
that is the slaying the nobles praise;
with anger slain one weeps no more.

168. Yam pare sukhato ahu
tad ariya ahu dukkhato
yam pare dukkhato ahu
tad ariya sukhato vidu
passa dhammam durajanam
sammulh'ettha aviddasu.

What others call happiness,
the noble call pain;
what others call pain,
the noble call happiness.
Behold this Dhamma hard to comprehend
by which the dull are utterly baffled.

169. Sabbada va sukham seti
brahmano parinibbuto
yo na limpati kamesu
sitibhuto nirupadhi.

Always happy is the holy man
who is wholly free within,
who is not stained by sense desires —
cooled is he and free from clinging.

170. Yam ca kamasukham loke
yam c'idam diviyam sukham
tanhakkhayasukhassa te
kalam n'agghanti solasim.

The happiness of sensual lust
and the happiness of heavenly bliss
are not equal to a sixteenth part
of the happiness of craving's end.

171. Sabba asattiyo chetva
vineyya hadaye daram
upasanto sukham seti
santim pappuyya cetasa.

With all his attachments cut,
with the heart's pinings subdued,
calm and serene and happy is he,
for he has attained peace of mind.

172. Pamujjabahulo bhikkhu
dhamme buddhappavedite
adhigacche padam santam
sankharupasamam sukham.

A monk who has abundant joy
in the Dhamma taught by the Buddha,
will attain peace and happiness,
with the calming of the constructs.

173. Sukho viveko tutthassa
sutadhammassa passato
avyapajjham sukham loke
panabhutesu samyamo.

Solitude is happiness for one who is content,
who has heard the Dhamma and clearly sees.
Non-affliction is happiness in the world —
harmlessness towards all living beings.

174. Sukha viragata loke
kamanam samatikkamo
asmimanassa yo vinayo
etam ve paramam sukham.

Freedom from lust is happiness in the world,
the going beyond all sensual desires.
But the crushing out of the conceit "I am" —
this is the highest happiness.

175. Susukham vata nibbanam
asokam virajam khemam
yattha dukkham nirujjhati.

The fully perfected Buddha has taught
Nibbana as the highest happiness —
without grief, immaculate, secure,
the state where all suffering ceases.

19. Tunhivagga (Silence)  

176. Samanabhavam kubbetha
game akutthavanditam
manopadosam rakkheyya
santo anunnato care.

Develop the quiet even state of mind,
when praised by some, condemned by others,
free the mind from hate and pride
and gently go your way in peace.

177. Tan nadihi vijanatha
sobbhesu padaresu ca
sananta yanti kussubbha
tunhi yati mahodadhi.

Learn this from the waters:
in mountain clefts and chasms,
loud gush the streamlets,
but great rivers flow silently.

178. Yad unakam tam sanati
yam puram santam eva tam
addhakumbhupamo balo
rahado puro'va pandito.

Things that are empty make a noise,
the full is always quiet.
The fool is like a half-filled pot,
the wise man like a deep still pool.

179. Kayamunim vacamunim
manomunim anasavam
muni moneyyasampannam
ahu nihatapapakam.

Silent in body, silent in speech,
silent in mind, without defilement,
blessed with silence is the sage.
He is truly washed of evil.

180. Upasanto uparato
mantabhani anuddhato
dhunati papake dhamme
dumapattam va maluto.

Peaceful, quiet and restrained,
speaking little, without conceit —
such a one shakes off all evil
as wind shakes leaves off a tree.

181. Cakkhumassa yatha andho,
sotava badhiro yatha
paññav'assa yatha mugo
balava dubbalor iva.

Let one with sight be as though blind,
and one who hears be as though deaf,
let one with tongue be as though dumb,
let one who is strong be as though weak.

182. Avitakkam samapanno
ariyena tunhibhavena
upeto hoti tavade.

Having attained the meditative state
where all thoughts come to a stop,
the disciple of the perfected Buddha
thereby possesses the noble silence.

183. Yatha jalo ca mugo ca
attanam dassaye tatha
nativelam pabhaseyya
sanghamajjhamhi pandito.

The wise one in the midst of an assembly
should not speak excessively long.
He should let himself appear
like a simpleton or a dullard.

184. Etam nagassa nagena
isadantassa hatthino
sameti cittam cittena
yam eko ramati vane.

In this both mighty beings agree,
the enlightened sage and the elephant
with tusks resembling the poles of plows:
both love the solitude of the forest.

185. Vihavihabhinadite
sippikabhirutehi ca
na me tam phandati cittam
ekattaniratam hi me

Amidst the chirping and twittering
of the birds in the woods
this mind of mine does not waver
for I am devoted to solitude.

20. Vipassanavagga (Insight)  

186. Pañcangikena turiyena
na rati hoti tadisi
yatha ekaggacittassa
samma dhammam vipassato.

Music from a five-piece ensemble
cannot produce as much delight
as that of a one-pointed mind
with perfect insight into things.

187. Ye ca santacitta nipaka
satimanto ca jhayino
samma dhammam vipassanti
kamesu anapekkhino.

Those peaceful in mind, discerning,
mindful and meditative,
having perfect insight into things,
unconcerned with sense desires,

188. Appamadarata santa
pamade bhayadassino
abhabba parihanaya
nibbanass'eva santike.

calm, delighting in diligence,
seeing fear in negligence,
can never fall away or fail,
for they are close to Nibbana.

189. Atitam nanusocanti
nappajappanti nagatam
paccuppannena yapenti
tena vanno pasidati.

They do not lament over the past,
they yearn not for what is to come,
they maintain themselves in the present,
thus their complexion is serene.

190. Atitam nanvagameyya
nappatikankhe anagatam
yad atitam pahinan tam
appattañ ca anagatam.

The past should not be followed after
and the future not desired;
what is past is dead and gone
and the future is yet to come.

191. Paccuppannañ ca yo dhammam
tattha tattha vipassati
asamhiram asamkuppam
tam vidva m-anubruhaye.

But whoever gains insight into things
presently arisen in the here and now,
knowing them, unmoved, unshaken,
let him cultivate that insight.

192. Cittam upatthapetvana
ekaggam susamahitam
paccavekkhatha sankhare
parato no ca attato.

Establish the mind, set it up
in one-pointed stability;
look upon all formations
as alien and as not self.

193. Phenapindupamam rupam
vedana bubbulupama
maricikupama sañña
sankhara kadalupama
mayupamañca viññanam.

The body is like a ball of foam,
feelings are like bubbles,
perception is like a mirage,
mental constituents like a pithy tree,
and consciousness like a magic trick.

194. Sabbalokam abhiññaya
sabbaloke yathatatham
sabbaloke anupayo.

Knowing the world in full directly,
the whole world just as it is,
from the whole world he is freed;
he clings to naught in all the world.

195. Sabbe sabbabhibhu dhiro
phutthassa parama santi
nibbanam akutobhayam.

This sage all-victorious
with all bonds loosened,
has reached perfect peace:
Nibbana that is void of fear.

21. Buddhavagga (The Buddha)  

196. Yathapi udake jatam
pundarikam pavaddhati
nopalippati toyena
sucigandham manoramam.

As the lotus is born in the water
and grows up beneath the water,
yet remains undefiled by the water,
fragrant and beautiful.

197. Tath'eva ca loke jato
buddho loke viharati
nopalippati lokena
toyena padumam yatha.

Just so the Buddha is born in the world,
grows up and dwells in the world,
but like the lotus unstained by water
he is not defiled by the world.

198. Mahasamuddo pathavi
pabbato anilo pi ca
upamaya na yujjanti
satthu varavimuttiya.

The mighty ocean, the earth so broad,
the mountain peak or the wind
are not adequate similes to describe
the awesome freedom of the Teacher.

199. Appameyyam paminanto
ko'dha vidva vikappaye
appameyyam pamayinam
nivutam maññe akissavam.

Who can measure the immeasurable one?
Who can fathom and determine him?
To try to measure the immeasurable one
betrays a mind devoid of wisdom.

200. Araññe rukkhamule va
suññagare va bhikkhavo
anussaretha sambuddham
bhayam tumhakam no siya.

When in the forest, amongst the roots of trees,
or when retired to an empty place,
just call to mind the Buddha and
no fear or trembling will arise.

201. Hitanukampi sambuddho
yad aññam anusasati
vippamutto tathagato.

When the Buddha teaches others
he does so out of compassion,
because the Tathagata is wholly freed
from both favor and aversion.

202. Yatha rattikkhaye patte
suriyass'uggamanam dhuvam
tath'eva buddhasetthanam
vacanam dhuvasassatam.

It is certain that the sun will rise
when the darkness of night fades away;
so too the words of the supreme Buddha
are always certain and reliable.

203. Satthugaru dhammagaru
sanghe ca tibbagaravo
appamadagaru bhikkhu
abhabbo parihanaya
nibbanass'eva santike.

Deeply reverent towards the Teacher,
reverent towards the Dhamma and Sangha,
reverent towards vigilance,
having kindness and good will:
a monk like this cannot fail,
for he is close to Nibbana.

204. Tena h'atappam karohi
idh'eva nipako sato
ito sutvana nigghosam
sikkhe nibbanam attano.

So stir up your energy now,
be skillful and be ever mindful.
When you have heard my voice
train yourself to attain Nibbana.

205. Ye pavutte satthipade
anusikkhanti jhayino
kale te appamajjanta
na macuvasaga siyum.

Those who do their best and train
in all the teachings that I have taught,
alert and meditative, shall in time
go beyond the power of death.

22. Kittisadda (Praise)  

206. Esa sutva pasidami
vaco te isisattama
amogham kira me phuttham
na mam vañcesi brahmano.

Hearing your voice, O sage supreme,
my heart is filled with joy.
My questions truly were not in vain,
the brahman did not deceive me.

207. Anusasi mam ariyavata
anukampi anuggahi
amogho tuyham ovado
antevasi'mhi sikkhito.

You have taught me the noble practice,
you were compassionate and helpful to me.
Your exhortation was not in vain
for I am now your trained disciple.

208. Upemi buddham saranam
dhammam sanghañ ca tadinam
samadiyami silani
tam me atthaya hehiti.

I go for refuge to the Buddha,
to the Dhamma and to the Sangha.
I undertake the rules of conduct
which will be for my true welfare.

209. Asokam virajam khemam
ariyatthangikam ujum
tam maggam anugacchami
yena tinna mahesino.

I shall follow that eightfold path,
griefless, immaculate, secure,
the straight way by following which
the great sages have crossed the flood.

210. So aham vicarissami
gama gamam pura puram
namassamano sambuddham
dhammassa ca sudhammatam.

I will now go from town to town,
I will go from city to city,
praising the Buddha and the Dhamma
so excellently taught by him.


A. .... Anguttara Nikaya
D. .... Digha Nikaya
Dhp. .... Dhammapada
It. .... Itivuttaka
J. .... Jataka
JN. .... Jataka Nidanakatha
M. .... Majjhima Nikaya
Miln. .... Milindapanha
S. .... Samyutta Nikaya
Sn. .... Sutta Nipata
Thag. .... Theragatha
Thig. .... Therigatha
Ud. .... Udana


References to Dhammapada, Jataka, Sutta Nipata, Theragatha and Therigatha are to verse number; references to other works are to the volume and page number of the Pali Text Society editions.

(An asterisk indicates the Buddha's own words)

1. Sn. 544
2. S. I, 50
3. Sn. 1063
4. Sn. 1065
5. Sn. 1038
*6. Sn. 1053
*7. Sn. 92
*8. It. 91
*9. S. I, 4
*10. Ud. 6

*11. S. I, 33
*12. S. I, 33
*13. S. I, 33
14. Miln. 335
15. Miln. 335
*16. A. II, 10
17. Thig. 347
18. Thig. 357
*19. S. I, 117
*20. A. IV, 96

*21. S. I, 85
*22. It. 8
*23. Ud. 69
*24. It. 93
*25. It. 93
*26. It. 66
*27. It. 66
*28. It. 66
*29. It. 66
*30. It. 66

31. JN. 128
32. JN. 129
*33. A. II, 32
*34. S. I, 32
*35. S. I, 32
36. Thag. 608
*37. A. III, 205
*38. A. III, 206
39. Thag. 612
40. Thag. 614

*41. Sn. 136
42. Thag. 1001
*43. It. 16
*44. S. I, 37
*45. Sn. 174
*46. Sn. 657
47. Sn. 451
48. Sn. 452
*49. S. I, 162
*50. S. I, 163

*51. Sn. 722
*52. A. IV, 196
*53. A. IV, 196
*54. A. II, 51
55. Sn. 454
56. Thag. 499
*57. J. 4
*58. J. 341
*59. D. III, 188
*60. D. III, 188

*61. A. IV, 271
*62. A. IV, 271
*63. A. IV, 6
*64. A. IV, 6
*65. Sn. 187
*66. Sn. 94
*67. S. I, 17
*68. It. 68
*69. It. 68
*70. It. 68

*71. S. I, 37
*72. D. III, 188
*73. D. III, 188
*74. It. 10
75. Thag. 1035
76. Thag. 141
77. Thag. 1027
*78. A. II, 8
*79. A. II, 8
*80. A. II, 8

*81. A. II, 8
82. Thag. 1026
83. A. II, 21
*84. It. 60
*85. It. 60
*86. A. II, 4
*87. A. II, 8
88. Thag. 278
89. Thag. 391
90. S. I, 129

91. S. I, 129
92. Thag. 668
*93. It. 111
*94. It. 91
*95. It. 12
*96. S. I, 39
*97. Dhp. 1
*98. Dhp. 36
*99. Dhp. 35
*100. Dhp. 33

*101. Dhp. 43
*102. A. II, 29
*103. Sn. 171
104. Thag. 194
*105. It. 117
*106. D. III, 185
*107. D. III, 185
*108. Sn. 717
*109. Sn. 707
*110. Sn. 709

*111. A. V, 16
*112. S. I, 14
113. Thag. 585
114. Miln. 337
115. Thag. 548
*116. Sn. 334
*117. Sn. 96
*118. A. II, 17
*119. Sn. 331
120. Thag. 451

121. Thag. 293
122. Thig. 161
*123. S. I, 7
*124. Sn. 184
125. Thag. 637
*126. S. I, 48
127. Thag. 446
*128. S. I, 162
*129. S. I, 162
*130. It. 120

*131. It. 120
*132. It. 121
133. Thag. 816
134. Miln. 342
135. Thag. 100
*136. Dhp. 130
*137. Dhp. 165
*138. Dhp. 166
*139. Dhp. 158
*140. Dhp. 159

*141. Sn. 132
*142. Dhp. 50
*143. Dhp. 253
*144. Dhp. 252
*145. Dhp. 379
*146. It. 84
*147. It. 84
*148. It. 22
*149. S. I, 208
*150. S. I, 208

151. J. 37
152. J. 38
153. Thag. 979
154. Thag. 33
155. S. IV, 118
156. JN. 168
157. JN. 169
*158. Sn. 705
*159. A. II, 72
*160. A. II, 72

*161. A. II, 72
162. Thag. 648
163. Thag. 649
164. Miln. 394
*165. It. 21
166. Thag. 225
*167. S. I, 161
*168. S. IV, 127
*169. S. I, 212
*170. Ud. 11

*171. S. I, 212
172. Thag. 11
*173. Ud. 10
*174. Ud. 10
175. Thag. 227
*176. Sn. 702
*177. Sn. 720
*178. Sn. 721
*179. It. 56
180. Thag. 2

181. Thag. 501
182. Thag. 650
183. Thag. 582
*184. Ud. 42
185. Thag. 49
186. Thag. 398
*187. It. 40
*188. It. 40
*189. S. I, 5
*190. M. III, 131

*191. M. III, 131
192. Thig. 177
*193. S. III, 142
*194. It. 122
*195. It. 122
196. Thag. 700
197. Thag. 701
198. Thag. 1013
199. S. I, 149
*200. S. I, 220

*201. S. I, 111
202. JN. 122
*203. A. III, 331
*204. Sn. 1062
*205. S. I, 52
206. Thag. 1276
207. Thag. 334
208. Thig. 250
209. Thig. 361
210. Sn. 192


Sakka (Sakya): the Buddha's clan name.
Brahma: he addresses the Buddha by the name of a deity.
The Buddha's contemporaries believed that people could be purified by bathing in sacred rivers.
Mara: the Tempter, the Evil One.
Brahma: A high divinity in the ancient Indian pantheon.